Bishop sincerely believed that avoiding addictive substances would transform humanity and open the door to a utopian future. He made his claim at a time when nuclear annihilation was a real possibility. Bishop argued that his way of life would increase the human life span by 10 years and so give people more time to improve society. Underlying all this was Bishop’s belief that the source of national antagonisms was the greed and hatred arising from the chemical effects of addictive substances on the brain. Bishop saw a clear connection between addiction and war; eliminate one and the other eliminates itself.