The Case of Plastics: Waste Interest Group
Plastic waste is one of today’s biggest environmental threats. Because plastic does not biodegrade, it can stay in the environment forever, creating long-term consequences. You believe bans on one-use, disposable plastic and limitations on all plastic production are the only way to address the plastic problem.
Read the Original Regulation and your group’s Goals and Recommendations for the final regulation, and use them to prepare answers to the following questions, which the Regulators will ask during the Hearing:
- Recycling in the United States is currently a function of municipal governments. Who should be responsible for plastic waste? Should the producers of plastics bear more of a burden than the consumers? What is the role of individual responsibility in addressing the matter of plastic waste?
- Only a small percentage of plastic waste in the United States is recovered for recycling, meaning most plastic trash goes into landfills. What is the best way to reduce the amount of plastic entering the waste stream? Is curbside recycling the best option? Do we need to develop new methods of recycling and fuel recovery? Or is reducing plastic production and consumption the best way to reduce waste?
- The goal of this hearing is to create a federal regulation that will effectively address concerns about plastics. What issues would governmental regulation of plastics most effectively address? What can be accomplished without governmental regulation that would improve the way we use and dispose of plastics? What new problems might result from these regulations?
- What historical cases, examples, or evidence provide useful lessons about the successes or failures of addressing the impact and implications of our uses of plastics?
- Do the problems caused by our use of plastics outweigh the benefits that they provide?
Waste Interest Group Roles
Great Pacific Garbage Patch Activist
You are an environmentalist who first brought public awareness to the pollution in the Pacific Gyre and who continues to conduct research and promote the awareness of marine pollution.
Anti-Waste Activist and Blogger
You are an individual who writes about efforts to eliminate plastics from daily life and who encourages others to do the same.
Plastics Pollution Coalition Representative
You are a marine biologist deeply concerned about the danger plastic trash poses to marine animals and ecosystems.
Artist and Anti-Waste Activist
You are an artist who uses plastic trash to create art as a form of advocacy against waste.
You are a lobbyist who promotes the passage of new recycling legislation at local and state levels.
Expert on Plastic-to-Oil Recycling
You are a scientist who is deeply concerned about the problems of plastic waste in the environment and who sees innovative recycling as the most viable solution.
Goals & Recommendations
Recommendations for the Regulation of Plastic Waste
Prepared in Advance of the Environmental Protection Agency Hearing
Main Concerns of the Waste Group:
- Recycling does not solve the problem of plastic waste.
- Reduction of plastic production and use is the only way to reduce the amount of plastic trash in landfills and the environment.
- Industry will not effectively regulate itself. The government must force the reduction of plastic use and production, especially of one-use, disposable plastics.
Recommendations Based on Waste Group Concerns:
- The production and sale of one-use, disposable plastics must be eliminated.
- Producers must be required to recover and recycle a significant percentage of extended-use plastics at the end of their lives to prevent them from entering landfills.
- Producers must address the existing environmental effects of plastic materials by financing cleanup efforts and scientific research.
- Punishments for producers who fail to comply should be strict and should include fines, the closing of plants, and limitations on production.
- Producers must finance the development of alternative materials to replace one-use, disposable plastic packaging and the production of plastic-free packaging. These alternatives must be environmentally superior to the materials they replace.
- The production of permitted plastic materials must address environmental concerns. Producers must prioritize reduction followed by reuse and recycling.
- Producers should develop and finance education programs designed to teach the public about the dangers of plastic waste and to inform people of new policies regarding the collection of plastic trash by producers.
Case Study: Trash and Treasure
Brought to the public’s attention in 1997 by Charles Moore, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch—the notorious swirl of plastic debris churning in the Pacific Ocean—symbolizes the problems with our consumer culture and the garbage it generates. Dramatic photos of Pacific seabirds, stomachs full of colorful plastic trash, underscore the impact of plastic waste on our planet.
For anyone concerned with the planet’s well-being the prevalence of plastic trash raises some troubling questions: What does this plastic waste mean for environmental and human health? What can be done about it? Though the answers aren’t easy, change must come—and quickly.
Our waste problem is in many ways a product of the plastic age and is very new. Through most of history humans were habitual recyclers, and we recovered, repaired, and reused all sorts of materials. What we couldn’t recycle we burned for fuel. Food scraps even fed herds of pigs on the streets of American cities. The animals cleaned the streets and served as food for the urban poor until early 20th-century efforts to clean up the cities began. Waste was once a potential asset with myriad uses. It only became a problem when we began sending it to landfills.
Americans remained accomplished recyclers through the mid-20th century. The economic deprivation of the Great Depression and the conservation and rationing of World War II instilled several generations of Americans with an ethic of reuse.
The economic and material abundance following World War II fundamentally changed American approaches to waste. The United States won the war thanks in large part to its ability to produce stuff, and production of plastics exploded as part of this wartime industrial effort. Plastics substituted for metal, glass, natural rubber, wood, leather, and silk in everything from bayonet scabbards to components of the first atomic bomb. By the end of the war the United States was making 300% more plastic per year than it had at the beginning of the war. And production did not end with the war. Instead, machines originally built for wartime production shifted focus to create materials for domestic consumption.
Cheap oil and inexpensive plastics created a postwar economic boom and allowed Americans to rethink their previous habits of conservation and reuse. A new sort of product flooded the market: the disposable item. Disposable products arrived in a steady stream, from the ballpoint pen in 1952 to the grocery-store plastic bag in 1965, and disposability was celebrated as an easier, better way to live. A 1955 Life magazine article celebrated “disposable living.” Featuring a photo of a happy family watching a cascade of disposable products, the article presented throwaways as a means of freedom. If they were not disposable, the pictured objects represented 40 hours of scrubbing to prepare them for reuse. But thanks to disposability, “no housewife need bother.”
Americans became very good at throwing things away and quickly forgot their past tradition of reuse. Today, half of all plastic products are designed to be thrown away after a single use. This ubiquitous, disposable packaging, much of it plastic, was virtually unknown before World War II. But the postwar consumer culture came wrapped in plastic. Cellophane gave food an aura of freshness, and merchants found that goods wrapped in plastic sold much better than unwrapped items. Plastic packaging does help to keep food from spoiling, but it also creates plastic waste that has to be disposed of after use.
In the 1960s scientists first noticed plastics in the ocean, our first glimpse of the problem of the Garbage Patch. At the same time, a growing American awareness of human-caused ecological and environmental problems led to concern over the growing abundance of plastic waste.
It was the plastics industry itself that offered recycling as a solution. In the 1980s the industry pushed municipalities to collect and process recyclable materials as part of their waste-management systems. Before this time very little recycling infrastructure existed, especially for plastics. In 1987 the Society of the Plastics Industry established the number-based recycling codes that identify types of plastics for sorting to help make recycling easier.
However, the industry-supported recycling system falls far short of addressing the plastic-waste problem. Very little plastic is actually collected for recycling, and recycled plastics are inferior in quality to newly manufactured plastics and have only a limited range of uses. These “downcycled” products don’t reduce our need for virgin plastic, so they don’t actually reduce plastic waste. To accomplish that, we would have to stop manufacturing plastic. In a famous New York Times article titled “Recycling Is Garbage,” John Tierney even argued that recycling is a waste of time and money that serves only to assuage our guilt about consumption.
Existing recycling systems also place the burden on consumers and local governments, giving producers no incentive to reduce production. An example from Europe offers an alternative. In 1991 Germany introduced “extended producer responsibility,” which mandates that producers take responsibility for their products throughout their life cycle. This program has been successfully adopted by the European Union and has many advocates in the United States.
There are also innovators who believe we could solve the waste problem by recycling better. They want to collect and recycle a much larger percentage of discarded plastic than we do currently in a way that does not reduce the quality of the plastic once it has been recycled and reformulated. Some innovators also argue that plastics can be reduced back into petroleum-based fossil fuels and used for fuel. David Steiner, the CEO of Waste Management, the largest recycling and garbage-collection corporation in the United States, says that “someday we might pay customers for their trash, rather than the other way around.”
Steiner estimates that there is $10 billion worth of “waste” locked in landfills. It is time for Americans to remember that what we consider waste is actually valuable material. Until we do, our plastic-waste problem will only continue to grow.
 John Tierney, “Recycling Is Garbage,” New York Times, June 30, 1996.
 Edward Humes, Garbology: Our Dirty Love Affair with Trash (New York: Avery, 2012), p. 84.
- Barry, Carolyn. “Plastic Breaks Down in Ocean, After All—and Fast.” National Geographic News, August 20, 2009.
- Berkeley Plastics Task Force. “Seven Common Misperceptions about Plastics.” EcologyCenter.org, April 8, 1996.
- Deutsch, Claudia. “Plastic Recycling Is a Work in Progress.” New York Times, March 30, 2002.
- Knoblauch, Jessica A. “The Environmental Toll of Plastics.” Environmental Health News, February 1, 2022.
- McDonald, Mark. “The Fatal Shore, Awash in Plastic.” International Herald Tribune, August 23, 2012.
- Mieszkowski, Katherine. “Plastic Bags Are Killing Us.” Salon, August 10, 2007.
- Moore, Charles. “Seas of Plastic.” Video, TED-Ed.
- Oceana, “Q&A: Susan Freinkel, author of ‘Plastic: A Toxic Love Story,’ on recycling myths and the problem with single-use plastics,” January 27, 2020.
- Strom, Stephanie. “Companies Pick Up Used Packaging, and Recycling’s Cost.” New York Times, March 23, 2012.
- Strom, Stephanie. “Companies Pick Up Used Packaging, and Recycling’s Cost.” New York Times, March 23, 2012.
- Biddle, Mike. “We Can Recycle Plastic.” Video, TED Talks, 2011.
- Cohen, Nancy. “For Empty Water Bottles, There’s an Afterlife.” Audio, NPR News Special Series, Plastic Peril? June 8, 2007.
- “Earthrise: Plastic Fuel.” Video, Earthrise, March 12, 2014.
- Hopewell, Jefferson; Robert Dvorak; and Edward Kosier. “Plastics Recycling: Challenges and Opportunities.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364:1526 (July 2009): 2115–2126.
- Jordan, Chris. “Chris Jordan on Midway Atoll and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.” Audio, New York Review of Books podcast, November 11, 2009.
- Jordan, Chris. “Polluting Plastics.” Video, 2010.
- Kahn, Jennifer. “Plastic. Fantastic?.” Mother Jones, June 2009.
- Loepp, Don. “Columnist says plastic is ‘too good to throw away’.” Plastics News Blog, March 17, 2011.
- Lytle, Claire Le Guern. “When the Mermaids Cry: The Great Plastic Tide.” CoastalCare.org.
- McLendon, Russell. “What Is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch?.” Mother Nature Network, February 24, 2010.
- Moore, Charles. “Ten Years Later, the Gyre Is All Around Us.” Video, Ted-Ed, 2010.
- Plastic Pollution Coalition. “Plastic Lasts Longer Than Life.” Video, 2012.
- Smith, Carol. “Plastic to Oil Fantastic.” Our World 2.0: United Nations University website, August 27, 2010.
- Terry, Beth. “Living a Plastic-Free Life.” Audio, Minnesota Public Radio News, August 20, 2012.
- Terry, Beth. “Living Plastic Free.” Video, Tedx, 2010.
- “Times Topics: Plastic Bags.” New York Times website.
- Young, Robin. “Should Supermarket Plastic Bags Be Banned?” Audio, WBUR Boston, Here and Now, November 29, 2012.